Ninavism - The Philosophy of Immortality
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SUMMARIES OF CHAPTERS:
Introduction
1. Technological Immortality
2. Final Immortality
3. Life Creation and Propagation
4. Life Centres in the Universe
5. Reincarantion Combined with Resurrection
6. Complete Model of Immortality
7. Postimmortality
8. History & Evolution of Immortality
9. Ninavism
10. Supernatural Forces
11. Problem of Evil
12. Epistemology
13. Methodology
14. Compatibilities of Immortalities
15. Heaven(s) & Hell(s)
16. Implementation of Final Immortality
17. Implementation of Present Immortality
18. Paradoxes & Puzzles of Final Immortality
19. Animals & Plants
20. Atheism
21. Population Control
22. Gays
 
Glossary of Terms
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Chapter 21

Population Control

Summary of Chapter

The number of people on planet earth is expected to reach 10 billion by the end of the 21st century - this is a gross overpopulation. When Immortality technologies are introduced in the far or intermediate future, the problem will intensify. A simple calculation shows that if a technological biologically Immortal couple have just one baby every 50 years, the population would reach one trillion after 600 years. Eventually, this could lead to stage when each square meter of the earth's land mass is occupied by at least one person.

Secular Reasons for Population Growth


A number of mechanisms are responsible for excessive reproduction and population growth. Traditionally, the foremost reason for the high birth rate has been the high mortality rate of children. A related factor has been devastating diseases killings millions of healthy adults. The second most important group of factors in the high reproductive rate are economic security and old age care. In countries without state-sponsored age care facilities, a large number of children is the best guarantee of safe retirement. Traditionally, the generals and military commanders were always enthusiastic about population growth because it increased the number of potential soldiers. Rulers and politicians support population growth as well - the larger the country, the more power they have, and the more tax is collected. The mentality of ordinary people also contributes to population growth - some men like their countries to outrun other nations. Business has a substantial share in population growth - it is well known that a large breeding and migration bring substantial economic benefits to some groups and businesses.

Religious Reasons for Population Growth


Historically, religions encouraged population growth. In the present age, no single religion is willing to change pro-growth policies unilaterally, because in such a case, they would be outnumbered in a very short period of time. For this reason, all religions need to come to an agreement simultaneously, by concerted removal of excessive breeding policies. Since many religions do not talk to each other, this is not an easy task.
      Some religions ban the use of condoms and other contraceptives as immoral or unethical; this is not correct. The real reason for the ban on contraceptives is to encourage people for having sex leading to pregnancies and population growth. Calling condoms immoral implies a divine recommendation and it is absolutely not true - nobody sins by using condoms. Supernatural Forces will not punish anyone for using contraceptives, and will not reward anyone for not using them.
      In a situation where one or more religions explicitly or implicitly promote unlimited reproduction, then all other religions must do the same. This is a rat race. No religion can afford to be the first to stop, because if they do it unilaterally and others will not follow, they will be losers. The religious policies of population growth are justified in the case when competing religions refuse to curb increases in their own population. For example, the policy of condemning using condoms and other contraceptives for the sole purpose of promoting pregnancies, is justified when some religions try to outnumber others by excessive breeding. In such cases, all religions have a full right to protect their share by increasing their own numbers and recommending to their own followers not to use contraceptives. This is understandable self-defence. When such policies are in place, the reasons for them must be fully stated. They cannot be formulated in moral or ethical terms because this is the falsification of truth.
      It needs to be stressed that excessive population growth is mainly caused by secular policies and attitudes that have nothing to do with faith. Religions make a secondary contribution, which is nonetheless important.

Population Control in Heaven(s)


Most Abrahamic groups suggest that children are not born in Heaven(s). For example, some Sacred texts say that people in Final World are like angels. This means that men are not Resurrected in their full capacity as on earth. It seems that during the process of Resurrection, people in Heaven(s) have a compulsory sterilization procedure carried out on each man and woman. After they are brought to life, they are infertile. Sacred texts do not use terms 'sterilization' and 'compulsory', but comparing people to angels is a diplomatic way of telling the truth. Nobody has the option of remaining fertile after Resurrection; therefore, sterilization is compulsory. Resurrecting people as angels is the method of divine population control.
      Some religions describe the coming of the End of the World as an instantaneous event. It is depicted as a momentary Resurrection of all deceased people, who are recreated. The new bodies are not the same as the originals. They are perfect because they are healthy and Immortal but, as indicated above, they are infertile. People who are alive at the time of Resurrection also obtain new, healthy and Immortal bodies instantaneously, perhaps even without noticing it, unconsciously. They are sterilized momentarily, possibly without being aware of it. What about women who are pregnant at the time of Resurrection? It is unimaginable that their children would die or be aborted. Possibly they give the birth, and this is the last such event in Final World. After childbirth, all women and newly born babies are infertile. If God(s) maintain population control in perfect Heaven(s), then humans on the imperfect earth are allowed to do so as well. This is a lesson to mankind.

Population of Final World


Scholars estimate that about 100-115 billion humans have ever lived since the emergence of mankind to the beginning of the 21st century. For simplicity, assume it is just 100 billion. By the end of the 21st century, the earth's population will stabilize at a level of about 10 billion. Assuming life expectancy of 100 years, each century will add 10 billion new individuals. Consider the scenario under which the End of the World and Final Immortality come at the end of the 21st century. The question arises as to how many individuals will be in Final World. By the end of the century, the total number of people who have lived since humans evolved from apes will be about 110 billion. Will all of them be in Final World? According to Ninavism, the answer is no; there are a few reasons for this. A substantial number of people are animals per se, that is humans who do not develop beliefs in Immortality and are not Reincarnated believing predecessors; they vanish permanently. Suppose that proportion of believers to animals per se, is 1 to 1 (it can be smaller). This gives 55 billion believers who qualify for Final World. Many of those individuals are multiple Reincarnations of the same Identity. Assume that the average Identity has 1,000 Reincarnations (this number might be much higher). This gives as little as 55 million individuals in Final World, most with a large number of Reincarnations.
      If Final World is created after 10 million years, its population will depend, to a large extent, on future technological developments. Consider the case where technological Immortality is not invented. With each century adding 10 billion individuals, after 10 million years, the number of humans who have ever lived will be about 1015 (digit '1' with 15 zeroes). Assuming the ratio of believers to animals per se, as one to one, and 1,000 Reincarnations for an average believer, this gives about 1012 (one trillion) individuals in Final World.
      Consider the case where technological Immortality is introduced after 1 million years. It is assumed that, at the beginning of technological Immortality, the earth's population will be 10 billion, which is the same as at the end of the 21st century. After the introduction of technological Immortality, at the (relative) absence of death, the population level will depend largely on rate of births. This is described in detail in the following sections. For example, if birth rate is 1 child per each technological (relatively) Immortal couple every 50 years, then the earth's population will reach 1015 after just 2,000 years. This means about 10 people per each square meter of land. This is obviously impossible and will be avoided by reducing birth rate dramatically. In extreme cases, no children will be born at all after technological Immortality is introduced. It will be the world supporting just the existing population until the time when Final World is created. In such a case, population of Final World in 10 million years will be the same as population in 1 million years, when technological Immortality is introduced. This gives about 1011 (one hundred billion) individuals in Final World.

Population Growth of Biologically Immortal People


Population Statistics Before Introduction of Immortality Technology

The present human population is about 7 billion. It is expected to grow to 10 billion by the end of the 21st century. According to predictions, it will stabilize at this level. The average life expectancy in developed countries at present is about 80 years. Assume that within a few centuries, it will reach 100. When population is steady at a level of 10 billion, this implies that each century about 10 billion people die, and the same number of children are born. The statistics will change dramatically after the introduction of relative Immortality, as described in the chapter TECHNOLOGICAL IMMORTALITY.

Life Expectancy After Introduction of Immortality Technology

After the introduction of Immortality by body repairs and cessation of ageing technologies, nobody will die from ageing and sickness. The only cause of death will be accidents, suicides, murders, and wars. Assume that the combined rate of death from all those causes during a 100-year period will be 1 person for each 1,000 people. Under such assumptions, life expectancy is 50 thousand years, that is the period after which each person has over a 50% chance of dying from an accident.

Birth Rate of One Child Every 50 Years

After the introduction of cessation of ageing Immortality each couple will be eternally young, and live on average for 50 thousand years. Assuming the birth rate of one child every 50 years, after 600 years the earth population will reach one trillion. After two thousand years, the population will be 1015 (1 with 15 zeroes), which is one thousand trillion. This is about 10 people per each square meter of land.

One Child Per Couple

If Immortal couple after giving birth to one child will not have any more despite being eternally young, than overall population will increase by 5 billion in the first century. In the second century the population will increase by 2.5 billion, and less in followings centuries. After 600 years the earth population will peak at 20 billion and will start decreasing. At this time, the single child birth rate needs to be changed to the replacement fertility rate of 2.1 children per woman, in order to avoid extinction.

Single Child Policy

The single child policy could be accomplished by psychological methods, like propaganda. If this does not work, it needs to be enforced by economic disincentives and withdrawal of state subsidies for a second child. Cessation of ageing procedure should be denied to people who refuse sterilization after having one child.

Immigration to another Planet or Universe

Immigration to another planet is only a temporary solution to the overpopulation problem, because in a very short time the new planet will be overpopulated too. The issue of migration to another planet when the earth is near its destruction by the sun is discussed in details in the chapter CENTRES OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE.

Life in Stable Population of Biologically Immortal People

Mankind is unable to stop reproduction when they still have some way to go. They proceed as far as they are able, until they are forced to stop. Stable population of biologically Immortal people will be at least 20 billion. At the stable stage, there will be 1 birth and 1 accidental death during a hundred years' period per 1,000 (relatively) Immortal people.

Children

The ratio of children (age below 20) in a stable population before the introduction of biological Immortality is 1 child for each 5 people. After the introduction of technological Immortality, the overall number of children will be 1,000 smaller than in the mortal population, which is 1 child for each 5,000 people. There will be almost no kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, and universities. Teachers of all levels will have to find new jobs.

Retirement

Before the introduction of biological technological Immortality, the ratio of working people (20-70 years old) to retirees (over 70 years old) is about 2 to 1. It means that almost 2 people work to support 1 retiree. After the introduction of Immortality, the ratio of relatively young people (20-100 years old) to old people (over 100 years old) will be about 1 young person to 1,000 old. It will be impossible for young people to support old. This society will be sustainable only if people never retire. They will have to work for 50 thousand years on average to support themselves. This is not a problem for cessation of ageing technology, when people are eternally young, but it is hard for body repairs men.

Population Growth for Computer-Based Immortality


Initially, when computer-based Immortality technology is introduced the population of Uploads (Virtuals and Robots) will be very small, starting from a single person.

Life Expectancy and Reproduction of Uploads

Life expectancy for biologically Immortal people implemented as body repairs or cessation of ageing is about 50 thousands years. Comparing with that, Uploads potentially live forever. They do not die naturally and, if they are destroyed by accident, they are recreated using spare copies of their minds stored safely outside of their bodies. People living in Heaven(s) do not reproduce sexually. They are like angels and sterile. The world of technological computerized Immortality is similar to Heaven(s), in respect to reproduction. Robots do not have robotic children. Virtual people do not have new virtual children. Uploads are created and programmed as sterile. In the virtual world, children can be simulated, but there are no new computerized children. See chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD for more details.
      Even if Uploads do not multiply sexually, their population will grow due to death of biological people, who obtain computerized Immortality after passing out. The growth of Uploads depends on the growth of Biologicals. Perhaps in the future, once people are fully aware that after death they have Immortal computerized life, humans will not be interested in having biological children at all.

Growth of Uploads Under Stable Biological Population

Without population control of Biologicals, ten thousand years after the introduction of technological computerized Immortality, the population of Uploads will be one trillion. For each biological person there will be 100 Uploads. For example, in a country the size of Britain, after 10 thousands years, there will be about 100 million Biologicals and 10 billion Robots or Virtuals. Once technological computerized Immortality is introduced, the biological population should not remain steady at the level of 10 billion, but rather it should be dramatically reduced. How far should the reduction go? This depends on whether or not Uploads are self-sufficient.

Uploads are not Self Sufficient

If Uploads are not self-sufficient, then the small number of Biologicals will be needed to support them. Suppose that one million Biologicals are able to support up to one trillion Uploads. The present population of 10 billion Biologicals can be reduced by the introduction of compulsory single child policy. The question is whether biological population would decrease from ten billion to one million just to please the economic needs of computerized biologically dead people. In the current age, the interest of live people is considered to be more important than the interests of dead ones. Suppose that this will change in the future and live biological humans will adjust their numbers to the interest of biologically dead people who are alive in a computerized form. After the introduction of computerized Immortality and enforced single child policy for 1,300 years, the population would reach stable level of about 20 billion Uploads and 1 million Biologicals. This is 20 thousand Robots or Virtuals for each Biological.

Uploads are Self Sufficient

In situation when Uploads are self-sufficient, they do not have the economic need for Biologicals. Virtuals might need a small number of Robots to reach out to the external world. In such a case, Biologicals might die out naturally. The question is whether or not Biologicals would voluntarily stop breeding? Economically, the answer to this is positive. Biologicals are not needed even for their own computerized Immortality. However, the psychological answer is not that simple. People might still feel a desire to breed, even if it is not needed.

End of Biologicals

In scenario where biological people are harmful to Uploads, Biologicals might be forced to cease existence. This does not mean killing them by Uploads. It is rather voluntary or forced cessation of breeding, so the biological population would die naturally, without a violent end. For example, this can be done by providing digital Immortality only to people with no children or one child. The single-child policy would eventually lead to natural extinction of Biologicals. In the current age, this scenario sounds dreadful, but it is reality. Traditional religions do not provide better solutions. They describe Final World of Resurrected people with new Immortal bodies to be very different from the originals.

Both Computerized and Biological Immortality are Available


In scenarios where technological biological Immortality is available together with computerized one, people could choose the type of technological Immortality. Men who select biological Immortality would live, on average 50 thousands years until accidental death. After that, they would obtain Immortal computerized life. The other alternative would be for them to abstain from biological Immortality techniques that are not obligatory. In such a case, they would die naturally after an average life of 100 years. Upon death, they would enter Immortal computerized world much earlier than those who chose to be biologically (relatively) Immortal.

Preference for Computerized Life over Biological One

The question is: given the opportunity, how many people would choose to undergo biological Immortality technique, and how many would refrain from that, preferring to die earlier? The answer obviously depends upon details of the particular biological Immortality. If body repairs is the only biological Immortality technology available, then many people would prefer to die early because living with continuous operations and repairs for 50 thousand years is tedious. If cessation of ageing is available, then certainly many people would choose this, but not all, because many people are born with severe physical or mental limitations, and they actually do not enjoy life that much. Some of these people would certainly prefer to die and lead a better computerized life, or be reborn biologically again under a different Reincarnation.

Suicide and Euthanasia

For individuals who prefer to stay biologically alive as long as possible, technological biological Immortality should not be denied. The enforced denial of body repairs or cessation of ageing is a form of euthanasia, even if Immortal computerized life would have come after biological death. Technological biological Immortality should be always optional, not compulsory. In situation where both biological and computerized Immortalities are available, the rate of suicides long before natural biological death might increase dramatically. These are suicides a long time before a need for body repairs, or cessation of ageing. In current times, suicides are rare because people have natural fear of death. However, in times when computerized Immortality is scientifically proved, the fear of death will almost disappear. This might result in mass suicides of people who encounter mild difficulties in life. The unnecessary suicides are, of course, undesired and should be actively discouraged. In extreme cases, computerized Immortality might be denied to all cases of suicides.

Controlling Population

In scenarios where technological biological Immortality is available in addition to computerized one, almost certainly the enforced single child policy would be introduced. If Uploads are self-sufficient, then the induced extinction of biological population is likely. It is not killing of Biologicals, but rather natural dying out.

Uploads are not Self-Sufficient

Consider a scenario where Robots and Virtuals are not self-sufficient and, at the same time, biological Immortality by cessation of ageing is available. A small number of Biologicals are needed to support not self-sufficient Uploads. Given earlier assumptions, for a country the size of Britain, this would be 200 million Robots or Virtuals and 10 thousand biological (relative) Immortals. Given their long life expectancy, one biological person would die every 10 years in the whole country. The birth rate must match it to avoid the extinction of Biologicals. This is just one child birth in ten years for the whole of Britain. Probably the entire country would celebrate and know each single child.
      Europe is about ten times bigger than Britain. On average there would be one child birth per year on the entire old continent. In such a case, one school would be sufficient for all the children in entire Europe. Presumably, it would be located somewhere in the centre of Europe, like in Bydgoszcz. Inside of this school, each year group would have one or, at the most, two children. Perhaps one large boarding school would be sufficient for the entire earth.

Children in Heaven(s)

In some technological Immortality scenarios, the small number of Biologicals, and children in particular, might look depressing to Humans of Present who are used to large crowds around and many children. However, it needs to be stressed that traditional religions do not offer any better perspective. There is no sexual reproduction in Heaven(s) and therefore no children. The Philosophy of Immortality predicts that children will be present in Final World. However, they will not be the result of sexual reproduction, which does not exist there. Children will be simulated, or Resurrected a multiple number of times. More details are in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD.

Key Points of Chapter: