Ninavism - The Philosophy of Immortality
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1. Technological Immortality
2. Final Immortality
3. Life Creation and Propagation
4. Life Centres in the Universe
5. Reincarantion Combined with Resurrection
6. Complete Model of Immortality
7. Postimmortality
8. History & Evolution of Immortality
9. Ninavism
10. Supernatural Forces
11. Problem of Evil
12. Epistemology
13. Methodology
14. Compatibilities of Immortalities
15. Heaven(s) & Hell(s)
16. Implementation of Final Immortality
17. Implementation of Present Immortality
18. Paradoxes & Puzzles of Final Immortality
19. Animals & Plants
20. Atheism
21. Population Control
22. Gays
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Chapter 10

Supernatural Forces

Summary of Chapter

Character of Supernatural Forces

Supernatural Forces are by definition those that are non-natural. They are considered stronger than natural, with the capacity to override them in a systematic or irregular way. Natural forces are predictable, while supernatural are not necessarily so. However, some religions describe Supernatural Forces as behaving in regular way. Therefore, they are both irregular and systematic. The idea of what are and what are not Supernatural Forces is relative to the stage of animal or human development. To animals almost everything is supernatural. To early humans, electrical lightings and thunder were considered to be caused by Supernatural Forces. This belief persisted up to the 20th century in some parts of the world.
      Theologies of some traditional religions describe Supernatural Forces as being above Nature and Logic - their powers unrestricted by any laws, natural or logical. Ninavism supports the traditional concept of Supernatural Forces, except that it considers their powers to be limited, but still powerful. More details are in the chapters PROBLEM OF EVIL and EPISTEMOLOGY.
      Ninavism assigns the goal of creating Immortality to Humans of Future, as a one possible alternative. It means that Humans of Future are treated as Supernatural Force. One might ask why any humans are treated as supernatural - why not as the natural creatures? At present, the prospects of achieving Immortality without supernatural intervention are so remote that humans who are able to do it must be treated as supernatural, as a matter of faith. In the present age, only traditional Supernatural Forces are believed to have the power to Resurrect the dead. If in the far future, Aliens, humans or other animals will acquire the power of raising dead from the grave, Resurrection will be not a domain of Supernatural Forces, but rather natural. However, in the present age, with no empirical evidence that humans or animals imminently will gain such powers, Humans of Future with the power of raising the dead are treated as Supernatural Forces. If Aliens from outside of the solar system, or from outside the visible universe will come in the future to help humans or animals on this planet, raising them from dead, they might be natural or supernatural. However, in the present age, when there is no scientific proof of their existence or powers, they must be treated as Supernatural Forces. The definition of Supernatural Forces given by Ninavism is the compound statement containing alternative forms of powers:

                                    OR Form-2
                                    OR Form-3
                                    OR Form-4
                                    OR something else not known yet
      Form-1 are traditional religious God(s) or Avatar(s), usually personal.
      Form-2 are Humans of Future with capacity to create Immortality.
      Form-3 are Aliens with capacity and will to create Immortality for humans.
      Form-4 are non-personal Supernatural Forces.

The term 'Supernatural Forces' is abbreviated for simplicity as 'SFs' or 'SF'. This text uses the term 'Supernatural Forces' in two related meanings. In the first narrower sense, Supernatural Forces means the traditional God(s) or Avatar(s). In the broader sense, Supernatural Forces includes Humans of Future, Aliens, as well as traditional God(s). The definition of Supernatural Forces given above corresponds to the second, wider meaning. The type of meaning for the term 'Supernatural Forces' depends on the context in which it is used. In many cases the distinction between the two types is irrelevant, or the type of meaning can be deduced from the context. In some cases, the phrases 'traditional Supernatural Forces', or 'traditional SFs' are used for clarification.
      One might ask: what exactly are Supernatural Forces (SFs)? Are they personal God(s), or Humans of Future, or Aliens, or non-personal SFs? The answer is that it is each one, or all, or any combination of them. It does not matter which parts of the alternative statement are true, as long as at least one of them is true. Supernatural Forces are not a necessary condition of Immortality. There are religions that support Immortality and do not describe it as supernatural, but rather as natural. Out of all domains of human activities, Immortality is the biggest one over which humans have little or no control. This is the main area of SFs. If in the very distant future people will gain control over Immortality as well, it could be the result of natural forces. It does not negate SFs. People believe in Immortality and SFs in order to achieve Immortality - natural or supernatural. Without such beliefs, Immortality might never be reached. The belief that humans (with possible help from Aliens) are able to construct Immortality for themselves is equivalent to the belief in SFs, and this is essential.

God(s) and Avatar(s)

God(s) and Avatar(s) are anthropomorphic forms of Supernatural Forces (SFs). They are depictions of SFs shown as something similar to men. God(s) and Avatar(s) exhibit some human characteristics, but usually not all. Anthropomorphic SFs are also called personal God(s). Supernatural Forces that are non-anthropomorphic might have several forms. In some of them, SF is not a living thing; it is like dead but still active. The example is the concept of Supernatural Force as a universal cause (abstract principle) of life and Immortality, cause of this world and Afterworld. It is like a Law of Nature, which is not a living creature, but rather something resembling active dead. Another example is the concept of SFs similar to gravity, driving this world and Immortality; it is also dead or mechanical. However, most notions of SFs describe them as living. The example of alive non-anthropomorphic concept of SFs is Nature, cosmos, or something similar to flora and fauna.
      Some religions worship non-anthropomorphic SFs. The best known examples are Brahman of Hinduism and Te of Taoism. Brahman is the shapeless driving force of the universe. Brahman is not to be confused with Brahma, who is personal creator God and part of Hindu's trinity. Brahman is also not to be confused with Brahmin, who is a member of the Hindu priestly caste. Taoist Te is 'the One' nameless and indescribable flow of the universe. The major characteristic of personal God(s) is how many human features they possess. This is important because many theological paradoxes and contradictions arise from assigning to God(s) too many human features. Classical example is the Problem of Evil, that exposes internal contradictions between human characteristics assigned simultaneously to one entity. For this reason, personal God(s) need to be treated as one of many manifestations of SFs. It is easier to resolve the Problem of Evil when SFs do not appear as personal God(s).
      Ninavism is normally not concerned explicitly with the concept of God(s), their anthropomorphic form, or relationships with other living creatures. The models of Immortality described in this book refer implicitly to God(s) under the generic name of SFs, without specifying whether they are personal or not.

Singularity Versus Plurality of Supernatural Forces

The issue of singularity or plurality of Supernatural Forces raises strong emotions. This can be subdivided into two separate cases: singularity or plurality of God(s) within one religion, or between different religions (unless SFs of different religions are identical). Singularity or plurality of God(s) is important in this world, because it affects the way SFs are worshipped, competition between religions, and religious wars. In religions with multiple Gods, there are conflicts between worshippers. Religions that have only one SF, have single worship and their theology is also simpler. As long as Immortality exists, it is not critical how many Gods live there, or are responsible for it. Gods are not fighting in Immortality, or else they would not be Gods - they are not humans.

Supremacy of Immortality over Supernatural Forces

Almost all religions support Immortality. Few religions which do not have Immortality are treated as degenerated; Ninavism defines them as Atheist. Most religions support Supernatural Forces. The majority of these religions worship them, treating them as responsible for Immortality. Religions which do not worship SFs (such as Buddhism) treat them as of secondary importance, and not contributing to Immortality or contributing little. Some important religions (such as Animism) support Immortality, but do not have SFs. To them Immortality is natural and does not require supernatural intervention. It is easy to explain Immortality as a result of SFs. Ancient Egyptian religion and all Abrahamic do this. It is equally easy to assume Immortality as a primary religious concept, and then treat SFs as the possible, but not the necessary reason for it. This last approach is used by Ninavism. Buddhism treats Immortal state of Nirvana in a similar fashion.
      The conceptual supremacy of Immortality over SFs means that Immortality is considered independently from SFs. Immortality does not necessary depend on SFs, but it does not exclude them. If Immortality is created and maintained by SFs, it is still considered independently. All models of Immortality developed by Ninavism, such as Immortality as Human Goal, natural Present Immortality, and CMI, assume conceptual supremacy of Immortality over SFs.

Supernatural Forces as Primary Cause of Immortality

The belief in Supernatural Forces as the primary cause of Immortality is supported by many (but not all) major religions. This view is fully compatible with Ninavism. It does not matter how Immortal life is reached, as long as it is achieved. There is no contradiction between conceptual supremacy of Immortality over SFs, and the belief in SFs as primary cause of Immortality. Even if SFs are the principal cause, conceptually Immortality is more important for ordinary humans who are more concerned with results rather than with causes.

Interaction of Supernatural Forces with this World

Supernatural Forces of all religions are principally responsible for Immortal World. However, sometimes SFs also are believed to interact with this world directly or indirectly, and be partially or fully responsible for events in this world. The interaction of SFs with this world, or lack of such interaction, is their second most important feature. If interaction is believed to occur, the degree of influencing events in this world is of great importance to any religion. Historically, the interactions of SFs with this world were considered of equal or even greater importance than the Immortality. This is due to human impatience. To some people, events of today or tomorrow are more important than events of the far future, after their death. This is like governments that are more concerned with what happens this year and the next, rather than in the far future, after departure from the office.
      Nowadays the interactions of SFs with this world are considered of lesser importance. This is caused by people demanding scientific proof of such interactions, which is hard to obtain. It does not deny interactions in the past. In the view of Ninavism, SFs do not need to intervene in human affairs as much as in the past, because much of their power was passed to humans. People now control tasks that were previously a domain of SFs, such as harvests. Humans are like grown-up children. Once they are big enough, parents do not need to help them anymore. There are still tasks that people are not able to control well, such as wars, which seem to be irresistible to men despite their destructive power. Other impossible tasks are debilitating genetic diseases such as cancer, over which people have little control. Perhaps in the future men will obtain more powers over them as well.
      Suppose for a while that SFs do not interact with this world, are not able to create Immortality, and are not able to help humans to create Immortality for themselves. Would SFs be needed in such a case? The answer is obviously no. If SFs are not able to help humans with current life and with Immortality they are not needed. There is empirical evidence that SFs rarely interact with this world in the current age. The belief in intervention of SFs frequently brings more harm than good. For example, sometimes people pray for divine intervention in the recovery of a sick person. When this person dies, they lose faith, not only in divine intervention, but also in Immortality. This is a serious mistake, since lack of divine intervention does not preclude Immortality. Ninavism assumes supremacy of Immortality over SFs. The Philosophy of Immortality discourages praying for miracles, such as for divine removal of sickness. Praying for coping with sickness does not always work, but is good.
      The belief in supernatural interventions in current affairs of people has greatly diminished over the past couple of centuries. However, it has not disappeared completely. There are still large sections of the community that strongly believe in supernatural intervention. They are some of the strongest supporters of traditional religions. Many of them believe in the omnipotence of SFs, that is their powers above Laws of Nature and Logic. Ninavism shows clearly that SFs are not omnipotent. Traditional churches are reluctant to admit the limited power of SFs due to fear of losing the support of people who strongly believe in the omnipotence of God(s). Beliefs in omnipotence and supernatural interventions have also some beneficial effects. Full discussion is in the chapter PROBLEM OF EVIL.

Aliens as Supernatural Forces to Humans

Aliens are usually defined as natural creatures living in a different solar system, galaxy, dimension, or the universe. They are imagined as superior to humans. Aliens are thought to arrive to people first, before humans are able to visit them. If they have the capacity to reach the earth, they are superior, because men do not have capacity to reach their home. Aliens would be like Spaniards discovering America or the Dutch, Australia, who were much more advanced than native Americans or Aborigines.
      If Aliens from the visible universe, or from a parallel universe, are much more powerful than humans, and if they have the capacity to interact with humans on the planet earth, could they be considered as God(s)? Traditionally the answer to that question was no. The main reason for this is that humans do not trust Aliens. They might be more powerful than humans, but they are thought to retain something of a human. People imagine Aliens as wicked or greedy. Since humans never saw Aliens, one might wonder what is the reason for that view? The answer is simple. Humans can see many people around, weak and strong, servants and leaders, who are greedy. Some idealistic people portray humans as extraordinary good. However, deep in their heart people feel that humans are wicked. They can see examples of this around all the time. In view of this, it is natural that people think Aliens are like them. The popular imagination of Aliens as mean does not have rational justification; it is irrational. For the past few thousand years, many individuals and societies on this planet strived to get rid of greed. They have not succeeded yet, but perhaps they will be able to achieve this in the future. It is optimistic to assume that one day, in the far future, mankind will lose weaknesses. If so, then it is easy to imagine that Aliens from more advanced civilizations have already achieved this goal, that they have already lost their wickedness, or even they had done it a long time ago. Therefore, at least some Aliens could be trusted.
      God(s) are creatures much more powerful than humans. Being powerful is still not enough to be a God. They need to be sympathetic to humans. Supernatural Forces which do not support mankind are useless. An anthropomorphic form of SFs which are not aiding or helping humans are not considered as God(s). Aliens from a visible or a parallel universe, who are much more powerful than humans, who have the capacity to interact with humans on the planet earth, and who are sympathetic to humans, meet all the criteria to be God(s); they are God(s). Aliens who are God(s) are SFs. Since Aliens are natural, one might wonder why Aliens are called supernatural? Yes, they are natural from an absolute perspective, but from a human perspective they are supernatural. The concept of SFs is relative. This is the same as with Humans of Future. From absolute and future perspective they are natural, but from current, present day perspective, they are supernatural.

Humans of Future as Supernatural Forces to Others

The model of Immortality as Human Goal assumes that future men will reach the capacity to create Immortality for themselves and for all past generations. Humans of Future who achieve this will become Supernatural Force. They will be supernatural, regardless of how they achieve that goal, in natural way or with the help of other Supernatural Forces. When Humans of Future will reach the capacity to create Immortality for people of the present age, they will be supernatural to currently living people who are not able to do it.
      When Humans of Future become Supernatural Force to people living on the earth, then one can easily imagine that they might become SF to others. By these are meant creatures and civilizations living outside the earth, in other solar system, or galaxies, or in other parallel universes. Some Aliens are rightfully considered as Gods(s) to humans. The logical extension is that Humans of Future might equally well become Gods(s) to other centres of life. This will require creation of Immortality for other civilizations, capacity to interact with those centres of life, and to be sympathetic to them. To help them rather than to conquer.
      One can say that the goal of becoming Supernatural Force to others is too much for humans. However, it is just an extension of what men do all the time. Parents constantly teach children, protecting them, and acting as SF. More advanced countries constantly teach and protect other countries. Since humans have ambitions to be supernatural to other men, they will have ambitions to be supernatural to other centres of life, without destroying them.

Generic Versus Particular Supernatural Forces

The description of SFs given by Ninavism is logical. It is like the logical description of a 'bit', which is the smallest unit of information. The bit is described as having logical 'high' or 'low' value. The terms 'high' and 'low' are logical description of a bit. Each of them can be implemented physically in many different ways, depending on the physical medium used for storing the information. For example, a bit might be implemented as high/low electrical voltage in an electronic circuit of a computer, or as the left/right orientation of magnetic dipole (i.e. particle) in hard disk, or as a hole or lack of it on a paper tape used in optical recognition systems, or as an upper/lower position of a manual mechanical switch, or as a digit '1'/'0' printed in a book, and many others. The electrical fields, magnetic dipoles, holes, mechanical switches, and printed digits are physical implementations of a local value of a bit. In similar ways, Humans of Future, Aliens, Nature, or traditional God(s) are different physical implementations of the logical term 'Supernatural Forces'. Each physical implementation of Supernatural Forces, is a different interpretation of the same logical term.
      Each physical implementation or interpretation is a particular Supernatural Force. The generic Supernatural Force is a logical description of all particular SFs. The term 'Supernatural Forces' is generic or logical, when it does not specify to which particular implementation or interpretation it refers to. Generic SF is the string of particular SFs, connected by alternative operator 'OR'. Traditional religions describe their SFs as if they were particular, but actually they are not. No traditional religion provides the exact physical implementation of SFs. Normally they do not say whether SFs are spiritual, or material, and the exact composition of the substance from which they are built.
      Supernatural Forces of traditional religions are logical in similar ways to the generic SFs described by Ninavism. It was a genius of traditional religions to invent a generic description a few thousand years ago. In this way, traditional, logical SFs might be implemented in many different physical ways. Priests, imams, rabbis, monks, and other clergy are not able to say almost anything about physical implementations of their SFs. For example, they are unable to describe details such as colour of eyes, height, or weight. They are not able to say whether a particular physical implementation of SFs has blood and important organs. The fact that they are unable to confirm or deny the presence of a heart in SFs is proof that their SFs are generic, logical, not particular physical implementations.
      The following question arises: is the Ninavist's formulation of multiple alternative SFs a monotheism or a polytheism? The answer is that it is a monotheism, because Ninavism does not recommend worshipping Humans of Future, Aliens, Nature, or traditional God(s) separately. All of them are supposed to be worshipped together. There is no one church, temple, mosque, or synagogue worshipping Humans of Future only, while at the same time another church, temple, mosque, or synagogue worship Aliens, and still another Nature, or traditional God(s). They are all worshipped together by each faith. A traditional religion supporting multiple implementations of their generic God(s) does not become polytheistic.

Spiritual Life

Spiritual life are human activities centred around mental objects. They are contrasted with material life, which are activities centred around material objects. There are many types of mental objects. Religious spiritual life deals mainly with three types of mental objects. The first one includes thoughts about spirits and souls of deceased relatives and friends - this is spirituality of Present Immortality. The second type includes expectations about one's own Immortality. The third type of mental objects present in religious spiritual life includes thoughts about Supernatural Forces - this is the spirituality of God(s).
      Supernatural Forces exists in two places; firstly, they exist subjectively in the brains of individual believers. Subjective SFs know everything about believer in whose brain they exist; they listen to the believer, communicate with one, but they are not almighty. For example, they are not able to cure cancer in children even if one begs them for that. Secondly, SFs are believed to exist as an external reality, either in anthropomorphic form or not. They are more powerful, but in some beliefs, they do not supervise individual people, and do not know what exactly people are doing. They are like parliaments that make laws, but who do not know the acts of individual people; they also cannot cure cancer of children, because they do not know about individual cases of sickness. Subjective SFs are directly detectable by inner senses of people. They are not present in the brains of disbelievers, but they develop well in the minds of believers. The stronger belief, the stronger subjective SF. They are the powerful driving force of progress for entire societies and cultures.
      Some religions assert that SFs are almighty and all knowing, without specifying which type of SFs they refer to, spiritual or real. It is a deliberate design, without distinguishing separate parts of SFs, as if it was all in one; this is a simplified concept of SFs. Analysis conducted in the chapter PROBLEM OF EVIL shows clearly that SFs are not almighty in an absolute sense. Some people facing the unresolved Problem of Evil draw the conclusion that SFs do not exist. This is a logical error not supported by experimental evidence. Experience only proves that SFs have limited power. Inference that SFs do not exist is worse than the conclusion that they have limited powers. In order to avoid the wrong outcome, it is better to admit limited power of SFs.


Praying has many different forms. It can be a general meditative type conversation with SFs. Or it can be asking them for help which comes in two basic sub-forms. First one asks for help in coping with the problem, but without requesting SFs to actually remove the source of difficulties. For example, asking for help in coping with distress, sickness, or poverty, but without a request to remove their cause. Other form of prayer asks SFs to remove the source of problem; for example, asking to remove the source of distress. Most commonly it is problem affecting the praying person, but people pray also for others.
      The meditative type of prayer is always good. The first sub-type of prayer for help, the one asking to cope with the problem, does not always help but is frequently beneficial. The second sub-type, the one asking to remove source of the difficulties is doubtful. It frequently brings more harm than good. This happens when after intense praying the severe problem is not solved. In some cases, it leads to a loss of faith not just in intervention of SFs, but also in Immortality. This is wrong since a lack of intervention by SFs does not preclude Immortality. Ninavism makes it clear by supporting supremacy of Immortality over SFs. Praying for removal of problems and miracles is suspicious. This is due to a lack of evidence for the interaction of SFs with this world at the present age.
      Praying is frequently asking for compassion, mercy, or forgiveness. When SFs are imagined in the form of anthropomorphic God(s), it is easy to pray to them. What about praying to Aliens? They are anthropomorphic and therefore possess the qualities of personal God(s). People usually do not trust Aliens. Therefore, praying to Aliens is hard. What about praying to Humans of Future? They are like kings or heads of states. Praying to Humans of Future is difficult, because people do not fully trust other people. Even if Humans of Future are like personal God(s), they have something of a human. Therefore, it is better to pray to traditional personal God(s), even if they will turn out to be Humans of Future. Religions pray to generic SFs without specifying whether they are Aliens, Humans of Future, or traditional God(s). It is much easier than praying to particular implementation of SFs. It was a genius of early religions to invent generic prayers, without specifying a particular implementation. Traditional religions are generic in relation not only to SFs, but to other details of their beliefs as well.
      One of the reasons why people do not pray to Humans of Future is that they do not exist. How can they help now if they do not exist yet? They do not exist in reality, but exist as ideas in the human minds. Is praying to an idea worthwhile? Praying to an idea in a human brain for own internal calm, or coping with problems makes sense. This is caused by the influence of the idea of Humans of Future that is present in the brain, on the calming and coping capacities in the other parts of brain. Humans of Future do not exist yet, but the idea of Humans of Future already exists - it is presented in this book and many others. When a believer in this idea develops it in one's own brain, the prayer to the idea has an impact on other parts of brain. This has a chemical and biological justification. One idea in the brain is able to influence other ideas by physical means; this process is the subject of scientific investigations.

Pragmatic Beliefs

The belief is pragmatic if its benefits are thought to be bigger than benefits of its rejection or modification. The pragmatic belief is, in principle, not compared with reality to check the truth. The reality of belief is of secondary importance. The pragmatic belief might be purely subjective. The pragmatism applies to a vast range of beliefs. One example is pragmatic belief in SFs. It says that the belief in SFs brings more benefits than the disbelief in them. Pragmatic belief in SFs does not assert or deny the reality of SFs. It is just not concerned with reality. Normally the reality or subjectivity of belief is of the utmost importance. For that reason, it is useful to distinguish two types of pragmatic beliefs: explicit and implicit. The belief is explicitly pragmatic when the rejection of comparing the belief with the reality is openly stated. The belief is implicitly pragmatic when not admitting openly that the reality does not matter, but actually carrying it out in practice.
      The most difficult to handle is the implicit pragmatic belief, that is also the most common. When representatives of such belief are openly asked whether or not they compare the belief with the reality, they (politically) answer that reality confirms the truth of the belief, but actually they do not carry out that comparison. The question arises: are they lying about comparing the belief with the reality? The answer is that sometimes yes, but usually no. This is due to the fusion of various reasons in their brains. They frequently believe that they make the comparison with the reality, while in fact they treat it as matter of secondary importance and cannot see it. The question arises: are they unintelligent? The answer is no, otherwise everyone could be named as unintelligent. Intelligence is a relative term. The motives are so entangled that it is difficult or impossible to distinguish them.
      Consider the pragmatic belief in the truth of the Bible. In view of pragmatists, it is more beneficial to accept the Bible with all details unchanged, rather than embark on the alternative belief in modified Bible that leads to numerous complications. The example of extreme pragmatic belief is one in the literal meaning of the Bible. According to this belief, the entire earth is about 6,000 years old, the bones of whales found in Himalayas were brought there by a flood, fossils found 3 km underneath the surface of land were covered by mud in the last 6,000 years, and radioactive dating is false. The extreme pragmatists do not care about reality, but they deny it. They do not lie and they are not unintelligent, they just do not know their motives. However, their calculation of pragmatic benefits might be wrong. Absurdity of their claims brings more harm than actual modifications of Holy books.


Some traditional groups use the concept of mercy to describe the way in which Judgements are made. For example, some religions appeal to the mercy of SFs to judge wrongdoings, or to forgive sins. The concept of mercy used by SFs was originally modelled upon compassion shown by kings and rulers in this world. Until very recently, the critical decisions were made by arbitrarily chosen individuals. They decided at whim about life or death. The concept of mercy was appropriate in the biblical period when Holy books where written. However, the times have changed. In the present age many people distrust mercy. This is caused by the observation that many kings and rulers showed no compassion. Many Judgements were unjust or cruel. One can argue that SFs are not earthly kings or rulers, but rather much better and just. Yes, but SFs are modelled upon them. Moreover, Holy books themselves give examples of Judgements by SFs considered to be unfair in the present age, that is the same as with kings and rulers.
      Historically, the concept of mercy was important as a means of increasing discipline in a hierarchical society. Civil mercy enforces the power and prestige of heads of states and governments. Divine mercy enhances the civil mercy. The historical importance of civil mercy has been greatly diminished, but it has not disappeared completely. The governments and bosses frequently behave as if they were the kings. Civil servants and employees do not beg for mercy explicitly any more, but implicitly they sometimes rely on it. For these reasons, mercy cannot be rejected but rather reduced.

Key Points of Chapter: