Ninavism - The Philosophy of Immortality
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1. Technological Immortality
2. Final Immortality
3. Life Creation and Propagation
4. Life Centres in the Universe
5. Reincarantion Combined with Resurrection
6. Complete Model of Immortality
7. Postimmortality
8. History & Evolution of Immortality
9. Ninavism
10. Supernatural Forces
11. Problem of Evil
12. Epistemology
13. Methodology
14. Compatibilities of Immortalities
15. Heaven(s) & Hell(s)
16. Implementation of Final Immortality
17. Implementation of Present Immortality
18. Paradoxes & Puzzles of Final Immortality
19. Animals & Plants
20. Atheism
21. Population Control
22. Gays
Glossary of Terms
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Chapter 8

History and Evolution of Immortality

Summary of Chapter

Role of Immortality in Religions

Immortality is the most important part of religions, but not the only one. The other traditional role of religions is to help people in various ways before death, like protecting them from sickness or accident, helping in war, ensuring a good harvest, etc. However, these parts of religions are secondary. Each religion needs to have Immortality, but not necessarily Supernatural Forces. In history, there were rare cases of movements calling themselves religions that had Supernatural Forces, but no Immortality. Ninavism considers such religions to be degenerated; they are defined as Atheistic.
      Civil religion is a state ideology that, on the surface, resembles religion. Civil religions normally reject both Immortality and Supernatural Forces, but try to retain the attributes of religions, such as symbols, ceremonies (rituals), cult figures, destinies, etc. For example, Marxism was the leading ideology of communism in the 20th century. It was treated in many countries as a new religion. However, because it never described Immortality, it was rejected as a religion.

Emergence of Morality

The theory of evolution maintains that primitive organisms, such as bacteria, develop into high-order animals, such as mammals, and some of those gradually evolve into humans. Ninavism accepts these findings and builds upon them. Low-order organisms either do not have a brain, like plants, or their brain is underdeveloped, like in many animals. For this reason, they do not have the capacity to have morality. According to Complete Model of Immortality (CMI), organisms without the capacity to develop morality, do not enter temporary Immediate World after death. Before the rise of humans 6-7 million years ago, no organisms had morality. Therefore, Immediate World was empty. It seems that some high-order animals have the capacity to be sympathetic to each other. If this is a morality, then they would be in Immediate World. However, there is no evidence that animals have morality.
      The situation has changed with the evolution of some animals into humans. Early humans were still like animals; presumably, they did not have morality. Therefore, after death they were treated like animals; they did not enter temporary Immediate World when they died. As their hominid brains increased, they developed the capacity to have morality, and the morality itself. At this point, the situation changed dramatically. In view of Ninavism, early hominids were the first living organisms on the earth to enter Immediate World after death. The population of Immediate World started to increase. The process of human transformation was not uniform. Some early hominids with large brain capacities had morality, and were in Immediate World after death, while others were like animals, without morality and entry into Immediate World. This situation continued in a modified form to the present day. Some people are born as animals per se, and without the brain capacity to develop morality - they are treated as animals.

Emergence of Immortality

Early humans developed morality, but it was not a religion - they did not have a belief in Immortality. They also did not reject beliefs; they were neither believers nor disbelievers. Religions started with the development of a belief in life after death. The indications of that are food offerings left in graves, so deceased people have something to eat. In the simplest form, this was a belief in Afterlife, without specifying details like souls. In its more complicated form, life after death was connected with the idea of a soul. Some early religions created the concept of a soul that resides inside of living organisms. When a creature dies, the soul survives, moving out of the dead body. Following death, souls have an independent Afterlife, staying nearby, or congregating in places, such as caves, forests, mountains, etc. This was the beginning of a belief in Immortality. Ninavism treats the development of a belief in Afterlife, with or without souls, as the starting point of Immortality.
      Temporary Immediate World existed before the emergence of beliefs, but there was no Immortality. Upon completion of staying in Immediate World, all individuals were annihilated, dying painlessly a second time; they were not Reincarnated. They were like many Atheists of the present day (note that Ninavism defines Atheism as a disbelief in Immortality, which in general is different from a disbelief in traditional Supernatural Forces). The emergence of a belief in Immortality is the first step in Immortality: the rebirth. Early humans who developed a belief in Immortality were the first to be reborn upon completion of their stay in Immediate World. The first religions did not practice an explicit belief in rebirth; rather they created the concept of Afterlife. First believers in Afterlife were reborn, even if they did not fully know and understand this.
      Early people were half human, half ape. When the first people developed Immortality, not all of them did it simultaneously. Those without beliefs continued life of animals, and were treated as such, without rebirth. The process of transforming apes into humans continues to the present age. As humans progressed, their passage into Immortal Worlds has evolved as well. The great majority of humans have the capacity for morality and belief. According to CMI, all of them enter temporary Immediate World. Some people of the current age do not develop beliefs, such as Atheists. If they are not Reincarnated humans, they are not reborn.

Emergence of Explicit Reincarnation

It seems that in the earliest religions, such as Australian Aborigines and Animism, the souls of deceased people were believed to live outside of the body of any organism on their own, or inside material objects, such as rivers, mountains, etc. As humans progressed, new religions on the Indian Subcontinent discovered that Identity of a person can actually move after death into a new living organism. This is known as Reincarnation, which is rebirth of the person inside of a new body. This new body is most commonly human, but might be an animal or a plant.
      Reincarnation is the explicit belief in rebirth. However, actual rebirths were occurring earlier, before they were discovered. One might ask, what is the importance of the discovery, if it was already there? The answer is that an explicit belief in Reincarnation is important. It is like the discovery of gravity in the 15th century AD. Gravity existed before it was discovered, but the explicit description of gravity helps to manage it more efficiently. Similarly, the explicit description of Reincarnation helps to manage rebirths in better way.
      Historically, Reincarnation, as part of Immortality, was overlooked. New religions emerging in Northern Africa and the Middle East did not promote Reincarnation. For example, Abrahamic religions do not explicitly reject Reincarnation, but also do not explicitly embrace it. This does not mean that followers of Abrahamic religions are not Reincarnated. In the view of CMI, followers of all religions might be Reincarnated, whether they believe in it or not; but explicit support for Reincarnation helps in better rebirths.

Location of Immortal World

In Animistic beliefs and in Reincarnation, Immortal life is thought to intermingle in a space and time with present life. In ancient Egyptian religion, Immortality became separated in space from current life. In this culture, Immortal life occurs not in this world, but rather in a different one. This place is known as the underworld, or Heaven, or Hell, all of which are thought to be concurrent in time with the present word. In the Egyptian religion, deceased people were thought to live under the earth, where the sun shines on them at night. It was thought that the sun disappears at night on this side of world, in order to make a day on the side of the world where the deceased people are, before returning back to shine on the living people.
      In Abrahamic religions initially, Immortal World was thought to be located behind the stars. This was fine because, in antiquity, stars were thought to lie within reach of the hand. This view was prevalent until the 16th century, when it was realized that distances to stars are huge, and they are difficult to reach. Ninavism supports the view that Immortal Worlds are outside of this world, even in a deeper sense, like on a different planet, in another dimension, in a parallel universe, or built from a different matter. This is the reason that they are not visible. This world might be visible there, but not in the opposite direction. Finding the exact location of Immortal Worlds is a task for science, not religions. However, setting a goal of achieving this is religious, not scientific, because in the current age, there is no direct rational justification for this. The Philosophy of Immortality sets the goal as being 10 million years away.

Link Between Morality and Immortality

Early religions did not have a connection between morality and Immortality. For example, for the Aboriginals of Australia, everyone had the same Immortal life, irrespective of their conduct in this world. The Aztecs of Mexico had different Immortalities for different people, but not dependent on a moral life in this world. Several religions independently introduced a link between morality and Immortality. The Egyptians of North Africa and the Hindus of India made Immortality dependent on morality about 6,000-4,000 years ago, each using a completely different model of Immortality.
      Later, the link between morality and Immortality was reinforced by the Judaic religion in the form of the ten commandments. The Judaic model of Immortality was again very different to the Ancient Egyptians and Hindus. The link made by the ten commandments was inherited by Christianity and Islam. All of the models developed by Ninavism support a connection between morality and Immortality.

Emergence of Final World

In the belief systems of Animists, Australian Aborigines, Ancient Egyptians, and Hindus, Immortality is concurrent in time with life in this world. That is, deceased people continue their lives while other people are still alive; Immortal World coexists with this world. In the next stage of religious evolution, Immortality was separated in time from present life by moving it into the far future. In this concept, Immortality is not concurrent with the present life, but rather it comes after life in its present form cease to exist, which is known as the End of the World. The creation of Immortality at the End of the World is known as the Resurrection of the dead. Final World does not coexist with this world, but comes in a time after this world vanishes. The concepts of the End of the World and Resurrection were primarily developed and popularized by Zoroastrianism and Judaism. They were later inherited by Christianity and Islam.
      In its simplest form, Resurrection relies upon reviving and recreating dead bodies directly from memory, without the existence of souls. In another form, Resurrection is combined with beliefs in Identities or souls; in the period between death and the End of the World, Immortality exists in the form of spiritual life concurrent with present world. After Resurrection, memories return to the revived body. In this concept, part of Immortality is concurrent with present life, and another part is not. Ninavism fully supports the concept of Resurrection. Traditional religions attribute the End of the World and Resurrection to the intervention of Supernatural Forces. Immortality created by Humans of Future, Aliens, or Nature, extends these concepts while at the same time, not excluding intervention of traditional Supernatural Forces.

Emergence of Semi-Permanent World

Semi-Permanent World is concurrent with life in this world. In this respect, it is like temporary Immediate World, but its difference is that it lasts longer. Buddha was the first to analyse explicitly Semi-Permanent World. To Him, it was permanent Immortal World. He did not know, or was not considering, the model of Final World that already existed at His time in the faraway lands of Persia and the Middle East. Semi-Permanent World is called Nirvana in Buddhism and Moksha in Hinduism. Buddha described in detail, how to get there using the path of Enlightenment.
      Did Buddha create Semi-Permanent World? According to Ninavism, the answer is no. This part of Immortal World already existed and it was not empty. Buddha showed how to get there from the perspective of parent religion of Hinduism. Buddha was one of the first to get to Semi-Permanent World, but He was not the first. For example, some of His disciples died before him and reached Enlightenment earlier. People of other faiths were there as well.
      One might ask, what is the importance of Buddha, if He was not the first one to get to Semi-Permanent World? Yes, Buddha was not the first to enter, but He was the first one to make a belief in this explicit. This is like the explicit description of Reincarnation. Rebirths existed before they were discovered, but making them explicit improved the chances of good rebirths. Similarly, the explicit description of Semi-Permanent World by Buddha, made it easier for other people to get there.
      Some Abrahamic groups support Semi-Permanent World as a place of rest for the period between death and Final World. In view of Ninavism, the nobles and Saints of other religions entered Semi-Permanent World, but they got there in a different way, not using Enlightenment as a vehicle. Ninavism supports Semi-Permanent World open to all religions, but for selected people only. Buddhists and Hindus need to reach Enlightenment to get there. People of other religions need to be special, such as Saints or nobles. People who did not reached Enlightenment are reborn or vanish.

Extinct Immortalities and Religions

The important case is that of extinct religions. Well-known examples are ancient Egyptian religion with pharaohs and underworld, ancient Greek religion with Zeus and Hades, or religion of the Aztecs of Mexico. Since the Egyptian religion does not have any followers, it would be tempting to say that it was a false religion, and their Immortality was also false. One might claim that if the religion had not been false, it would not have become extinct.
      The Egyptian religion existed for over three thousand years. It was extremely successful. The proof of this still remains in the form of pyramids, that were tombs meant to house and guard Immortal life of the pharaohs and, indirectly, lives and Immortalities of ordinary Egyptians. The view that Immortality of the Egyptian religion was false is rejected by Ninavism. The very success of the Egyptian civilization is the proof that their religion was true, and their concept of Immortality was true. Their religion was rather replaced by better religions, and better concepts of Immortality.
      Similar arguments apply to other religions. The Aztecs of Mexico had cruel beliefs that demanded multiple human sacrifices. Despite this, their Immortality was better than no Immortality; it ensured their survival. Perhaps no Azteca reached Semi-Permanent World before the Spanish conquest; but many of them and their Reincarnations got there later, after conversion to other religions. If they did not have any Immortality beliefs in the first place, none of them would have achieved this, because they would have led lives of animals.

Future Immortalities and Religions

The same that happened with Egyptian, Greek, and Aztec religions, can happen with any current belief in Immortality or religion. Any one of them might disappear in the future and be replaced by a better Immortality or religion. If this happens, it will not mean that the currently practiced Immortality beliefs or religions are false. Perhaps some or all current Immortality beliefs or religions will be replaced in the future by better Immortalities and religions. This possibility does not degrade any current religion and their concepts of Immortality. Any current Immortality or religion is rightfully entitled to be proud of their beliefs even if that religion will disappear in the future.
      Ninavism promotes new models of Immortality that are considered to be more complete and better than those of traditional religions. They might be adopted by any existing religion, or serve as a foundation for future religion(s). Models offered by Ninavism are certainly not the last word in the domain of faith. New better models will be developed in the future that will replace the currently proposed models. This process of religious evolution will continue until Final World is reached.

Biological Evolution

There are contradictions between some religious accounts of the development of biological world and science; religion is not a science. It normally describes Immortality rather than current life. The sections of religious texts that refer imprecisely to this world can be easily reinterpreted in such a way that they become compatible with science. The developing concepts of Immortality are compatible with biological evolution of living organisms. It would have been strange if biological organisms evolved while Immortality didn't change. Rather, everything evolves: biological organisms, science describing biological organisms, Immortality, and religions describing Immortality. Models described by Ninavism are explicitly compatible with the theory of evolution of biological organisms.

Key Points of Chapter: