Ninavism - The Philosophy of Immortality
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SUMMARIES OF CHAPTERS:
Introduction
1. Technological Immortality
2. Final Immortality
3. Life Creation and Propagation
4. Life Centres in the Universe
5. Reincarantion Combined with Resurrection
6. Complete Model of Immortality
7. Postimmortality
8. History & Evolution of Immortality
9. Ninavism
10. Supernatural Forces
11. Problem of Evil
12. Epistemology
13. Methodology
14. Compatibilities of Immortalities
15. Heaven(s) & Hell(s)
16. Implementation of Final Immortality
17. Implementation of Present Immortality
18. Paradoxes & Puzzles of Final Immortality
19. Animals & Plants
20. Atheism
21. Population Control
22. Gays
 
Glossary of Terms
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Chapter 2

Final Immortality

Summary of Chapter

Eternal life without a biological death, such as promised by some versions of technological Immortalities, is the aim and goal of mankind, as described by various religions. It applies to people of the current age and the past. Ninavism shares the optimism, enthusiasm, and belief that it will be reached. Final World is briefly described as a place of perfect eternal life for people of the past, the present, and the future. It does not exist yet, but is expected to be created by natural or Supernatural Forces.

Relationship to Technological and Traditional Immortalities


Final Immortality is different from versions described in the chapter 1, TECHNOLOGICAL IMMORTALITY, in several respects. Firstly, Final Immortality creates eternal life for people who have already died (and those still alive), while technological Immortalities of chapter 1 apply mainly to people who will be still alive at time of their creation (except digitized humans and cryonics). Secondly, Final Immortality cannot be destroyed accidentally, like technological ones of chapter 1. Thirdly, Final World is almost perfect, while technological Immortalities of chapter 1 are far from perfect. Technological Immortalities described in chapter 1, need to be substantially extended in order to achieve the status of Final World.
      Final World can be constructed by Humans of Future, Aliens, Nature, or traditional Supernatural Forces. This chapter concentrates on Final Immortality constructed by Humans of Future. This differs fundamentally from traditional religions that concentrate on Final World brought about by Supernatural Forces. The creation of Final Immortality by mankind does not exclude help from Supernatural Forces, but also does not rely on it.
      People capable of creating Final Immortality are called in this book 'Humans of Future'. Ninavism treats Final World as the goal towards which the whole living world is heading, regardless of how it is created. At present, the prospects of achieving Final Immortality without supernatural intervention are so remote, that the goal itself must be treated as either philosophical or religious.

Records of the Universe


Religious texts promise Resurrection without explaining how it will be done. Presumably, it will be based on information kept by Supernatural Forces in their memory, or preserved by souls. Another attempt to make Final Immortality easier, is to create digital records containing all the relevant information about a person's body, mind, and consciousness. This is known as the digitization of humans and is described in the chapter TECHNOLOGICAL IMMORTALITY. Using the stored information, Humans of Future, Aliens, or traditional Supernatural Forces will be able to Resurrect all people who were digitized previously. This technology does not exist yet. It is in a design stage and it has a serious disadvantage: people who died in the past, and who will die before the technology is ready, will not be able to be Resurrected in this way.
      Humans of Future might find natural ways of Resurrecting old bodies. The belief in a human-made technological Resurrection is based upon the assumption that information about the details of the lives of all humans since the beginning of time are stored safely somewhere, inside or outside the universe. This information will be used for the construction of Final Immortality.
      The assumption about the existence of a natural source that contains information about all humans, past and present, is central to a man-made Final Immortality. This assumption is called 'Records of the Universe'. The related assumption is that Humans of Future will be able to access Records of the Universe when creating Final Immortality. The possibility is that natural forces (Aliens), or Supernatural Forces (Gods) might use the same source of information when they attempt to construct Final World and Resurrect people. One particular way in which Records of the Universe are created is called 'Imprinting'. This is described in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD.

Methods of Constructing Final Immortality


The chapter TECHNOLOGICAL IMMORTALITY considers two fundamental groups of methods for achieving Immortality: biological or computerized. Final Immortality is similar, but the focus is shifted towards computer-based methods. The reason for this is that in the current age, computer techniques seem to be more advanced and promising. The Philosophy of Immortality treats mind simulation and uploading as generic processes - they are not restricted to computers. Mind uploading is a general process of transferring digitized feelings and consciousness to a new biological, spiritual, or computerized body.
      The way a new body works is called a 'computer model', but it is not restricted to computers. Currently, software cannot work (run) in a biological or spiritual body. This might change in the far future, when Final Immortality is constructed. This is a software perspective that needs to be understood as generic. In Final World, the software might work in a biological or spiritual hardware, but it is described as in the present-day computers, because this is the only hardware of current times where software works (runs).
      Final World might be constructed on a different planet in the visible universe; or it might be located in a different dimension. Alternatively, Final Immortality might be built outside of the visible universe, in a parallel universe. Traditionally, Final World was treated as spiritual. This was thought to be the main ontological substance to form Immortal human bodies. The alternatives are material biological bodies in an improved form, or computer-based ones. More ontological details are in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD.

Limitations of Final Immortality


Some traditional groups claim that eternal Final World is the place of total goodness and perfection. However, close analysis of the feasibility of Final World shows that a totally good and perfect world is logically impossible. Humans are not able to construct it now and in the future; even Supernatural Forces are unable to do it. This is clearly shown in the chapter PARADOXES AND PUZZLS OF FINAL WORLD. An inability to construct the perfect world is not the fault of natural or Supernatural Forces, but rather it is the result of contradictory human expectations.
      Take children as an example. On the earth, having and raising a child brings lots of satisfaction, and is considered a great goodness. However, this goodness is not available in Final World. This is due to the contradiction between the goodness of Immortality and the goodness of reproduction. Immortality excludes unlimited reproduction. It is shown clearly in the chapter POPULATION CONTROL. Even Supernatural Forces are not able to overcome the contradictions. Religious texts say that no reproduction takes place in Final World. For this reason, Final Immortality is not perfect, even if religious texts do not openly admit it.
      Each religion provides slightly different description of Final World; they are called models. Ninavism describes the generic model of Final Immortality. It tries to reconcile contradictions and inconsistencies between models given by religions. Each religion provides slightly different descriptions of Final World; these are called models. Ninavism describes the generic model of Final Immortality. It tries to reconcile contradictions and inconsistencies between the models given by religions.

Methodological and Epistemological Justification


The Philosophy of Immortality uses a methodology similar to religion. It is based upon acceptance by the feelings of a large number of people. Since the project extends into the far future, Ninavism also uses methodology based on Futures Studies (Futurology). More details about this and other parts of Immortality knowledge are in the chapter METHODOLOGY.
      The feasibility and various details of Final World require justifications. Philosophies and religions are filling the gaps in imagination by creating their own depictions of Immortality. Many of these descriptions are compatible with each other, but not all. Some details provided by religions are not important. However, each philosophical or religious vision of Immortality is better than none, because a description of Immortality without any details is the biggest distortion. The epistemological justification for Final World and other parts of Immortality are in the chapter EPISTEMOLOGY.

Timing of Final Immortality


Past Human Attempts to Construct Immortal Life

Early humans attempted to facilitate Immortal life by storing food and other objects in the graves of deceased people for use in an eternal world. The most sophisticated technological attempt to construct Immortal life was performed by ancient Egyptians. They built huge pyramid tombs for pharaohs and made complex mummifications of bodies. Egyptians tried to ensure that Pharaohs successfully made a passage to Immortal World. They did not do it just for Pharaohs, but for themselves as well. Pharaohs, upon reaching Immortal life, would look after the men still alive and help them to make a safe passage to the eternal world. Early humans and Egyptians failed to create Immortal life which everyone could see and confirm experimentally. This type of Final life is the goal for Humans of Future.

Evolution of Human Race in the Future

After one billion years from now, biological life will change, but there is no scientific evidence whether it will be progression or regression. There is small chance that all life might revert back to a single cell bacterium, as it is the most secure form protected from a high level of competition for resources. More likely is the extinction of humans caused by new mutating viruses, or by one arriving to the earth in meteorites and asteroids. Another possibility is the death of entire species, humans and animals alike, caused by the natural ageing of DNA that is common to all individuals. Scientists will not be able to stop the entire human species from becoming extinct if men lose interest in reproduction.
      The human species is about 6-7 million years old. Some scientific evaluations give the number of 26 million years as the average lifespan for a higher-order species. The average time between mass extinctions is about 100 million years (more or less). The last one was 70 million years ago, so the next one is likely to occur in about 30 million years. Suppose that human descendants will evolve into another species every 50 million years. This is roughly true when looking at human predecessors. If the hypothesis is correct, then after 500 million years, human descendants will be in the 10th generation of turning into a new species. They will look very different than men. In the past, some dinosaurs became birds. The same might happen to some human descendants. Other human descendants might move to the sea, such as the whales and dolphins, whose predecessors were living on the land. Those human descendants might look at present-day people the same way as current-age men treat their predecessor animals, as something to eat.

Immortality Test

Assume for a while that human species would achieve the capacity to create Final Immortality in the near future, like at the end of 21st century. It is unlikely that all creatures would be honoured with Final Immortality created by men, even if this was possible. People living at the end of 21st century would probably write down a set of very complicated rules about whose Final life would be created and who's would not. Call it 'Immortality test'. It would be most likely partially based on morality. People such as Hitler, Pol Pot, child rapists, and many others, would not pass the test, and Final Immortality for them would not be granted (perhaps except Hell). For non-human creatures, the Immortality test would also consider how closely related they are to humans, and whether or not they are dangerous to other forms of life. For example, bacteria are not closely related to humans, so their Final life would not be created.
      Assume that creatures living on this planet will reach the capabilities of creating technological Final Immortality in 500 million years' time. They would most likely write down the Immortality test to determine whose Final life to create and who's not. The question arises, whether they would consider current-age humans as qualifying for Final Immortality? Present men might look to future creatures, like the low-order animals look at present-day humans. 500 million years ago, the water, algae, snails, and some amphibians, lived on the earth. Present-day humans might look like them to creatures inhabiting this planet after the next 500 million years'. They might consider current humans to be not worth Final life, as too primitive. Immortality test corresponds to Judgement of traditional religions. It will decide who is in Final World, and who is not.

Timeline for Goal of Final Immortality

Consider the timing or deadline for the goal of humans reaching technological ability to create Final Immortality. If the deadline is very distant, such as in 500 million years, then current humans might not pass Immortality test. If the aim is 10 million years away, the chances are higher. It would have been even better if it is less, something like 1,000-10,000 years, but achieving that goal in such a short time is unlikely. One million is more likely, and ten million years gives even more chance, with high probabilities that humans will be still leading animal species on the earth. Ten million years is less than 30 million, when the next mass extinction is likely. A 100 million years is not a good time for the goal because humans are likely to be extinct. A deadline of ten million years is a speculative trade off. It is described as a range from a million years to twenty million, with ten million being in the middle.
      Ninavism sets 10 million years as a deadline for humans to create Final life. It is the time when Humans of Future would reach the technological capacity to Resurrect all of the people that lived in the past. This goal might be reached with or without help from Aliens or traditional Supernatural Forces. In 10 million years' time, humans should have the capacity to confirm Final World scientifically.
      The number 10 million years seems to be much higher than predictions or estimates of other philosophies or religions. However, this is not the case. For example, the cosmology of final destiny point expects Final World to came after time longer than many billions of years. Hindu and Buddhist religions expect the cycle of reincarnations to last many hundreds of millions of years. Leading transhumanists estimate that Resurrection will come in the period ranging from many thousands years to hundreds of thousands of years.
      The official position of Christianly, Islam, and Judaism is that timing of Final World is unspecified. It might come today, or after 1,000 years, or after one million, or one billion years. No particular number has any higher theological justification, than any other number. Therefore, the 10 million years estimate by Ninavism, is in perfect agreement with all Abrahamic religions, except it is more specific than them.
      Some religious groups expect Final World in shorter time, like 200-300 hundreds years, or before the end of 21th century, or even imminently like within few years from now. The short term expectations are usually done for psychological and political reasons, with poor or no justification. This is discussed in detail in the rest of this chapter and in the section SUPERNATURAL CREATIONS of the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD.

Characteristics of Immortality Goal


The goal of reaching Final Immortality is not a typical human aim due to its big scope and distant timing.

Political Versus Religious Goals

Neither politicians nor environmentalists set any goal in the far future, like one thousand years. Politicians cannot seriously set a goal of creating Final World or achieve Immortality in the current age. It would be ridiculous for them to do so. If they did it, they would be laughed at because this looks impossible in current times. On the other hand, religions and philosophy consider the goal of reaching Final life and Immortality seriously. Religions are especially capable of planning aims as distant as 10 million years because they deal with eternity as a matter of principle.

Possibility of Interruption in Construction of Immortal Life

Humans without religious beliefs, regarding the goal of achieving Final Immortality, will never be able to actually achieve Final life. This is due to the gradual construction of religious truths, by slow changes in human attitudes, morality, organization of society, etc. If unverified philosophy or religion is rejected now, this gradual process of constructing philosophical and religious truths will be interrupted, and they might not be constructed at all. The rejection of philosophy or religion is a self-destructive process.

Side Effects of Human Goal of Immortal Life

Building a well-disciplined society with a strong morality is beneficial to humans, regardless of any religious motive. The goal of Immortal life is to enhance and accelerate the process of achieving the qualities that are good to human society independently from Final life. This observation has important implications. Even if the aim of constructing Final Immortality by humans fails, it is still important to have such goal.

Communal Character of Human Goal of Immortal Life

Some people might argue that the aim of Final life is so remote and uncertain that sacrifices and restrictions are not worth it. These individuals would prefer obtaining total freedom and lack of restrictions on their moral behaviour now, at the cost of their own Immortality in the future. This is fine, provided that they understand what they are doing. Everyone has the right to choose Hell, but by doing so, they cannot undermine the goals of the larger society. If too many people choose to select the road to Hell, then the entire path to Final Immortality for others might be in jeopardy.

Sense of Life

Some people have a sense of life not related to religion. This is an earthly purpose, such as raising children, building a better house, getting rich, etc. Ninavism resolves the contradictions between the religious sense of life of reaching Final World and the secular sense of life of building a stronger society. This is done by specifying the goal of Final World openly and explicitly as being 10 million years away. Final Immortality is still so far away that life on the earth is like a mortal world running in parallel to Final one. Building a stronger society is the goal for mortal life, while the goal of Immortality is for Final World. They do not contradict each other.
      Traditional religions commonly refuse to specify how far away they are from Final World. By doing so, they create the illusion that it might be very soon, which in turn, undermines the sense of secular life, and most economical and political goals. The timing of Ninavism of 10 million years seems more reasonable. It is fully compatible with the Holy books of traditional religions.

Final Immortality as Human Goal Versus Religious Views


Formulating Final Immortality in natural terms is a major challenge for religions. However, as further analysis shows, natural and supernatural Immortalities are compatible.

Human Goal of Immortal Life in Traditional Religions

Setting the goal of achieving Final Immortality in 10 million years' time by Humans of Future does not require religions to change their practices, or abandon praying to Supernatural Forces and other rituals. All that religions have to do is to continue believing in Final life, and in the link between conduct on the earth and the rewards of Immortal life. This link is known in various religions as Final Judgement, or Karma, or Enlightenment. Whether Final World is achieved by supernatural means or by natural is irrelevant. What is important is that the goal is achieved at all. Those who believe only in Supernatural Forces can continue praying to God(s), and this will help to achieve Final life by both supernatural and natural means. Those who do not believe in supernatural intervention are still free to worship God(s) who, to them, represent the Humans of Future or Aliens creating Final Immortality; the belief in God(s) is equivalent to the belief in natural Humans of Future or Aliens. More details are in the chapter SUPERNATURAL FORCES.

Differences Between Religions

None of the current-age traditional religions is in a position to support the Human Goal of Final Immortality in a direct manner, openly. This is due to the scriptural basis of those religions. Their Holy books do not embrace it explicitly. However, all those religions, by teaching about Final World reachable in a supernatural way, and about heavenly rewards for moral deeds on the earth, indirectly support the goal of constructing Final Immortality by humans.
      Traditional religions have similar prospects for reaching Final life, but they are not the same. Religions differ slightly in their efficiency of achieving the aim of Final World. For example, the Ancient Greek religion of multiple Gods with Zeus at its head, gave way to Christianity as a better way of pursuing Immortality. This does not mean that the Ancient Greek religion was false. It was true way of reaching Final life, but it was less efficient than Christianity. Most current-age religions are less than 5 thousands years old. Some people think that there are huge differences between various current-age religions, but this is just an illusion. From the perspective of 10 million years for reaching Final Immortality, the differences between present-day religions are as tiny as the period of time those religions have existed.

Rational Justification of Religions

There is a chance that the idea of creating Final Immortality by Humans of Future or Aliens would not find broader support, leaving as an alternative, the reliance on traditional Supernatural Forces alone. This could be caused by various psychological factors of the human mind. However, this would not be a proof of falseness of the concept of Final World as a Human Goal. The idea would still remain the rational justification and backbone of traditional religions believing in Supernatural Forces, because Humans of Future or Aliens might actually create Immortality, even if nobody believed in this now. People in the future might reach the technological capabilities of Immortal life, even if everyone has believed in traditional Supernatural Forces.

Beyond Final Immortality


Final World built on the earth is not eternal in the sense that Immortal life will need to be relocated to another planet, dimension or a parallel universe before the destruction of planet. More details are in the chapter CENTRES OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE. The goal of constructing Final Immortality is 10 million years. The question arises, what will happen on planet earth in the period after reaching Final Immortality and before destruction of life on the planet? This is a very long period, say 3 billion years. It is much longer than the aim of reaching Final Immortality. Many scenarios are possible; some of them are analysed in the chapter POSTIMMORTALITY.

Key Points of Chapter: