Ninavism - The Philosophy of Immortality
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SUMMARIES OF CHAPTERS:
Introduction
1. Technological Immortality
2. Final Immortality
3. Life Creation and Propagation
4. Life Centres in the Universe
5. Reincarantion Combined with Resurrection
6. Complete Model of Immortality
7. Postimmortality
8. History & Evolution of Immortality
9. Ninavism
10. Supernatural Forces
11. Problem of Evil
12. Epistemology
13. Methodology
14. Compatibilities of Immortalities
15. Heaven(s) & Hell(s)
16. Implementation of Final Immortality
17. Implementation of Present Immortality
18. Paradoxes & Puzzles of Final Immortality
19. Animals & Plants
20. Atheism
21. Population Control
22. Gays
 
Glossary of Terms
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Chapter 1

Technological Immortality

Summary of Chapter

Humans of Present age attempt to extend the lifespan of men by technological means. The ultimate goal is to make it infinite, to transform humans into an absolutely Immortal species. The project of creating technological Immortality has not reached the engineering stage yet. In the current phase, science and technology attempt to formulate the project, but it is still in an early stage; it is not appropriate for consideration by politicians yet. However, technological Immortality is already suitable for analysis by philosophy and religion.
      Some forms discussed in this chapter resemble absolute Immortality because they do not allow natural death, but with the potential to die from an accident. The limited forms of Immortality are called partial. Immortalities discussed in this chapter apply mainly to people who are still alive (with some exceptions) at the time that the relevant technology is mastered. They do not apply to people who will die prior to this moment or to those who died in the past; the Immortality for the last two groups is discussed in the chapter FINAL IMMORTALITY.

Biologically Based Immortality


Biologically based people are referred to as 'BIOLOGICALS'. They stand in contrast to computer-based humans who are called 'COMPUTERIZED'. The last term used in this meaning is not an adjective, but rather a plural noun. Some modern philosophies, call Computerized (people) 'UPLOADS'.

Rejuvenation

It has been noticed that one particular species of jelly fish seems to be Immortal. After becoming an adult, it does not die, but rather rejuvenates by dropping most of its body and transforming itself into a newly born baby (polyp). Then it starts growing again, repeating the rejuvenation into a baby at the end of each cycle. In this way, it never dies.
      Scientists contemplate ways of applying the same rejuvenation principle to higher order organisms, such as rabbits or humans. This would be like the renewal or rebirth of oneself. No particular procedure exists at present. Assuming this could be done in the far future, it would lead to the transformation of the adult human, shortly before natural death, into a baby. This type of Immortality resembles, on the surface, the concept of rebirth well known from some traditional religions. The major difference is that the rejuvenated person has the same DNA as the original. Closer analysis shows that rejuvenation is a biological continuation of life, and not spiritual, as is Reincarnation.

Cloning

Cloning humans is the exact biological replication of individuals. At present, scientists attempt to clone the conceived animal and human embryos. This type of Immortality resembles rebirth. The copy loses the memories of the previous life, but retains the same DNA and potentials. It is different from the rebirth of some traditional religions, where one is able to cross species into other animals. The cloning of an entire young adult together with memories, feelings and consciousness is a very different technique. Cloning as an adult is superior to cloning an embryo. This is due to the retention of memories, feelings, and consciousness of the original version.

Body Repairs

Futurist researchers discuss the possibility of implanting nanorobots inside human bodies, or replacing failing parts of the brain with computer-like parts. Humans repaired that way are sometimes called Cyborgs. Suppose that in the far future, the technology of body repairs succeeds and humans can live forever. Would this be Immortality? Yes, it is a relative one, but not absolute. If a repaired human is completely destroyed by accident, it cannot be repaired, but if no accident happens, then repaired humans would be absolutely Immortal.

Cessation of Ageing

Telomere is part of the mechanism inside of animal and human cells that causes new cells to be older than the previous ones. Scientists already work on the modification to telomere which, if successful, would stop the ageing of cells after splitting, or at least stop the natural death of cells without reproduction. No procedure has been found so far, but research continues, and it is still early days.
      The procedure for cessation of cell ageing would need to be applied selectively, to adult organisms only. If it was applied to baby organisms, they would never grow up. The trick is to stop ageing upon reaching maturity. This would be Immortality, but not completely. This is due to the possibility that Immortal humans could still be killed by unavoidable accidents, such as earthquakes. However, this would be very close to true Immortality.

Computer-Based Immortality


Computer-based Immortality is drastically different from biological. The computer-based animal or human bodies have a form of hardware without cells and organs. The spiritual part of living creatures is implemented in computerized life as a software, which is not based on chemistry and biology, but rather on Laws of Logic. In computerized life, the memories, feelings and consciousness of biological humans (or animals) are recreated in logical form inside of the hardware. A computer is their new body. The brain inside of the computer needs to interact with other people and with the environment. This interaction can be implemented in two fundamentally different ways: outside or inside of the computer.

Robots

Robots are the first method of implementing interactions between a computerized brain and the environment. In this technology, the objects external to the brain are outside the computer. This includes other people, rivers, mountains, etc. Robotic humans (or animals) need to have senses and arms and legs, in order to interact with the external world. The senses and limbs are not biological, but rather artificial. In this technique, humans have an artificial computer-based brain, but walk and live in a world external to the computer. The name 'ROBOT' applied to humans sounds dreadful, because in the current age, Robots are caricatures of people; they are grossly imperfect. Robots in the future will be indistinguishable from humans in their mental capacity. Only their physical appearance will be different.

Virtual Life

Virtual life is the second, more advanced implementation of brain-environment interaction. Here the objects external to the brain are recreated inside of the computer. The whole world is there, including other humans, mountains, rivers, etc. The senses and body parts supporting them, such as arms or legs, are inside the computer. They are not physical, but in the software. They interact with the world created inside of the hardware. The entire cosmos is inside of the computer in a logical form. This is more or less like a computer game, where all the characters and their environment is in the software. It is life inside of a computer. Virtual people are referred to as 'VIRTUALS'.

Virtual Reality

Virtual life is different from the technology of virtual reality that already exists. Examples are airplane flight simulators and some computer games. In these commercial applications, an environment external to the brain is simulated on the computer. However, the brain is not simulated; it is a biological brain. In comparison to that, in virtual life described in this chapter, the brain of each person is simulated as well; it is not biological. Such technology is not available yet.

Brain and Mind Simulation

Biological people have generic hardware in the form of brain cells and chemistry. All Biologicals also have generic minds in the form of biological neurons and synapsis. This is the information processing centre. The generic brain and mind work together to enable the process of thinking. They are generic, because they are similar in different people. At the same time, each biological person has an individualized mind superimposed on a generic mind and a generic brain. The individualized mind consists of memories, feelings and consciousness, which are different for each person. They form the mental data of the biological brain. The generic brain, mind and individualized mental data form, collectively, the personality of a biological person.
      Computerized humans (Uploads) in the form of Robots or Virtuals are described in a similar manner as biological people. All Robots and Virtuals have the same generic brain. This is the hardware of the computer. It is equivalent to the biological brain which is the hardware of current people.
      All computerized humans have the same generic mind. This is the information processing inside of the computer. It is done by software running the biological brain simulation on the computer hardware. Generic brain simulation is equivalent to information processing done by neurons in the biological brain. Each robotic or virtual person has an individualized mind superimposed on a generic mind. The individualized mind consists of memories, feelings and consciousness, which is different for each computerized man. This is digitized mental data. The generic brain, generic mind and individualized digitized mental data form together the personality of a Robot or Virtual.

Simulation Hypothesis

There is a theory which says that the existing universe, including its entire environment, all individual people and their minds, is actually a computer simulation. This theory is known as Simulation Hypothesis. Biological people are not aware that they are simulated. Simulation Hypothesis does not explain who or what runs the simulation. Presumably it would be natural forces much more powerful than humans, such as Aliens or traditional Supernatural Forces. Simulation Hypothesis suffers from all the difficulties exposed by the Problem of Evil. A full discussion of Simulation Hypothesis is in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF PRESENT IMMORTALITY.

Mind Uploading and Storage

Mind uploading is the process of transferring information about the brain and mind of a biological living organism into a computer. It is transforming biological mental data into a digital form understandable to a computer - mind simulation processes run there. This is necessary in order to create a link between the personality and the generic computer. Without such a link, computer life could not be a replacement for individualized biological life. Mind uploading is required for both Robots and Virtuals. Once the individual mind and consciousness are inside of a computer, the person has a new brain and new body. Mind storage (or downloading) is the process of transferring all information about a particular person from the biological brain into media external to the computer.

Relationships with Uploads

Is computer simulation completely independent from life of the original biological person? This depends how the simulation is programmed. It can be programmed as a dependent life or as independent. Both scenarios are possible. Robots and computers of the present age are certainly not self-sufficient. The situation will likely change in the future and several scenarios are possible. In one of them, Uploads (Robots and Virtuals) are almost self-sufficient, but not quite. They need a small number of Biologicals to support them. In the next scenario, most Immortals are Virtuals, with a small number of Robots to support them, and no Biologicals are needed. The next scenario is that Uploads and Biologicals coexists side by side. It is the responsibility of Mortals to program and simulate Immortals in such way that they behave properly.

Digitizing Humans


The digitization of humans is the process of converting information about each person into digital form. Digitizing human beings involves more than storing memories of their past lives. People have feelings and consciousness that also need to be digitized. The digitization of humans is selective. Only information about the most important parts of a human is digitized. The individualized mental data of a particular person is perhaps as small as 1% of the total brain and mind. It is important to save the information when a person is young, say 25 years old. Even more advantageous would be repeating digitization a few times during a lifetime.
      Some prominent people of the 21st century announced that digitization of humans, including consciousness, will be completed by the year 2,045. This deadline is a gross underestimation of the task at hand. Scientists will be lucky if they are able to finish it in a thousand years. Science is nowhere near understanding the complexity of the human brain. It could take even a million years.
      Computerized life enables repeated recreation of a person from digitized storage. For that reason, it is very close to true Immortality. Digitized storage can be used for technological Resurrection in Final World. Digitized storage can also be used for retransmitting people via electromagnetic waves to the other planets in times when the earth is facing destruction by the expanding sun. Details of that process are described in the chapter CENTRES OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE.

Demand and Restrictions on Immortality


Not all people will be interested in technological Immortality. Also, not all people wanting it would get it. Some Immortality techniques will be more popular than others. Some restrictions on the use of Immortality will also apply.

Rejuvenation as Baby or Cloning as Embryo

In the case of Immortality implemented by rejuvenation as a baby or cloning as an embryo, the difficult issue would be looking after a rejuvenated baby or carrying and rearing a cloned embryo. When the technology is mastered, there will be a market for talented children. Adoptive parents would be able to choose a baby with the abilities they like.
      Consider the case of a heterosexual couple sterilizing themselves and producing two clones during their lifetimes: one exact copy of the husband and the other the exact copy of the wife. Suppose that the couple adopt those clones as their own children, and raise them as own. The boy and the girl grow up as siblings, but actually they are not genetically related. Their genetic father and mother are actually their grandparents. They are like step children. After growing up, they can marry each other without incest, even if it is weird. After marriage, they could clone themselves the same as their parents, and adopt clones. Their descendants could keep doing it perpetually. In this way, they would ensure genetic Immortality. The case of a couple cloning themselves perpetually is against the rule of not cloning oneself during a lifetime. There might exist an exemption on the ban of cloning oneself during a lifetime, but only for couples who voluntarily sterilize themselves, thus avoiding biological reproduction, and overpopulation.

Cloning as Young Adult

When cloning as an adult is available, people would have no fear of suicide, knowing that they will live again. This, of course, should not be allowed, but evaluation of each case of suicide might be difficult. Perhaps cloning as a young adult should not be allowed as long as the original person is still alive. This is Immortality technology, and not a new sexual reproduction technique.

Body Repairs

The technology of continuous body repairs is likely to result in people having very old body parts that are periodically transplanted. People who opt for repetitive operations might be so bored after living, say 200 years, that they might wish to die, but cannot achieve this naturally. However, many people are desperate to continue biological life, even if it is a misery. These people must be given the opportunity to live forever, if technology permits it.

Cessation of Ageing

The technology of cessation of ageing will result in very healthy people, say 25 years old, who never get old. It is a very attractive idea. Out of all methods of biologically based Immortality, this will be certainly the most popular one. However, they will have to enforce strictly the population control policies. It means that they will have no children most of their lives, except shortly after their own birth. Further details are in the chapter POPULATION CONTROL.

Robotic or Virtual Life

The digitization of memories, feelings and consciousness, will likely be a very popular method of achieving Immortality. If biological Immortality is available as well, computerized Immortality will coexist with it. For example, someone who chooses cessation of ageing might equally well wish to be digitized. What is the reason if the person is already Immortal? The answer is simple. The ageless people can be completely destroyed by accident, without the possibility of revival. In such a case, digitization secures the computerized Immortality of that person. If cessation of ageing cannot be achieved for technical reasons, then robotic or virtual life is the only alternative.

Computerized Hell


The world of Uploads might also be used as a place of penalty, something resembling Hell and Purgatory. One obvious example would apply to people who manage to escape a penalty in life. For example, it would be handy for people who killed family and then committed suicide, thus escaping justice. They could be Resurrected as Uploads from their digital storage, and then punished.

Impact of Technological Immortality on Afterlife


There is no guarantee that attempts to create absolute Immortality (without death) will ever succeed. This does not exclude relative Immortality after death that is traditionally called 'Afterlife'. Perhaps Immortality can only be achieved after passing through the compulsory stage of death. However, both religion and philosophy must be prepared for the possibility that Immorality might be achieved without dying. There is a much bigger chance of achieving partial Immortality. This is a substantial life Extension, or even the lack of a natural death, but with the potential for an accidental one. Some forms of partial Immortality might be reached within the next one thousand years or so. To be on the safe side, Ninavism assumes that the project of creating partial or absolute technological Immortality will succeed in one million years, in one or more forms.

Final World

The traditional religions assume that Supernatural Forces will create Final World. Ninavism supports this and adds technological Final Immortality, created by Humans of Future or Aliens, as other alternatives. Final World might be also created by Nature. More details are in the chapter FINAL IMMORTALITY.
      The first humans to reach absolute Immortality, which is eternal life without death, by technological means, are those who achieve relative biological Immortality and never die by accident until Final World is created by Humans of Future or Aliens. The first people to reach absolute Immortality by traditional religious means will be those individuals who live at the time when Supernatural Forces create Final World. They will never die. They will not be Resurrected, but rather they will obtain new bodies instantaneously and, perhaps unconsciously, continuing to live in the New World.

Technological Versus Final Immortality

Partial Immortality achieved by means of rejuvenation or by cloning is not a substitute for Final Immortality, because these are far from perfect. Consider the implementation of Immortality by body repairs or cessation of ageing. The quality of life might be good or poor, depending on predispositions and the abilities of a man. Individuals might be in good health all the time, but they can be destroyed permanently, because body repairs and cessation of ageing have different technological capacities than those of Final World, which assumes indestructibility or repeated recreation. So, this type of partial Immortality is not exactly a replacement for Final World.
      Partial Immortality of Uploads is very close to being a replacement for Final World, but not quite. Finally, all types of technological Immortalities do not cover people who have died before reaching the age of technological Immortality.

Technological Versus Present Immortality

Many religions and Ninavism support the concept of Present Immortality, which is the state of life directly after death. More details are in the chapters REINCARNATION COMBINED WITH RESURRECTION and COMPLETE MODEL OF IMMORTALITY. The interesting question is: will technological Immortality eliminate the need for Present Immortality for people in the future? The answer depends on the particular Immortality technique. A detailed analysis is in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF PRESENT IMMORTALITY.

Fate of People Prior to Implementation of Technological Immortality


The prediction of Ninavism is that one or more forms of technological Immortality might be achieved within one million years. This means that the present day people and all those who will work hard to construct technological Immortality, will miss it. They will die before it is achieved. The question arises whether people who have already died, and who will die before technological Immortality is achieved, will ever reach Immortality? All religions and the Philosophy of Immortality believe that, yes, they will have it. However, it will be achieved differently than described in this chapter. More information is in the chapter IMPLEMENTATION OF FINAL WORLD.

Key Points of Chapter: